Kementerian Riset Teknologi Dan Pendidikan Tinggi
Republik Indonesia
No. Name Institution Indonesian Counterpart Institution Counterpart Author Title Year Type Detail
1 Raph Leonardus Hamers Oxford University Budi Wiweko, MD, OG (REI), PhD Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Marc Noguera Julian, Maria Casadella, Mariona Parera, Cissy Kityo, Kim Steegen, Denise Naniche, Bonaventura Clotet, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Roger Paredes
Implementation of ultrasensitive HIV drug resistance tests for routine clinical use is hampered by uncertainty about the clinical relevance of drug-resistant minority variants. We assessed different detection thresholds for pretreatment drug resistance to predict an increased risk of virological failure.
2018 paper
2 Raph Leonardus Hamers Oxford University Budi Wiweko, MD, OG (REI), PhD Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Marc Noguera Julian, Maria Casadella, Mariona Parera, Cissy Kityo, Kim Steegen, Denise Naniche, Bonaventura Clotet, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Roger Paredes
Implementation of ultrasensitive HIV drug resistance tests for routine clinical use is hampered by uncertainty about the clinical relevance of drug-resistant minority variants. We assessed different detection thresholds for pretreatment drug resistance to predict an increased risk of virological failure.
2018 paper
3 Raph Leonardus Hamers Oxford University Budi Wiweko, MD, OG (REI), PhD Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia Raph L Hamers, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Charles B Holmes
After 15 years of global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), rising prevalence of HIV drug resistance in many low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) poses a growing threat to the HIV response, with the potential to drive an increase in mortality, HIV incidence, and costs. To achieve UNAIDS global targets, enhanced strategies are needed to improve quality of ART services and durability of available ART regimens, and to curb resistance. These strategies include roll out of drugs with greater efficacy and higher genetic barriers to resistance than those that are currently widely used, universal access to and improved effectiveness of viral load monitoring, patient-centred care delivery models, and reliable drug supply chains, in conjunction with frameworks for resistance monitoring and prevention. In this Review, we assess contemporary data on HIV drug resistance in LMICs and their implications for the HIV response, highlighting the potential impact and resistance risks of novel ART strategies and knowledge gaps.
2018 paper
4 Raph Leonardus Hamers Oxford University Budi Wiweko, MD, OG (REI), PhD Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia Erlangga Yusuf, Raph L. Hamers
On 16 May 2018 the World Health Organization (WHO) released the Model List of Essential In Vitro Diagnostics (EDL), 41 years after the first release of the successful Model List of Essential Medicines [1]. The EDL's purpose is to provide evidence-based guidance to countries to create their own national lists of essential diagnostic tests and tools, anticipating that the EDL will complement the WHO List of Essential Medicines [2] and enhance its impact. National essential medicines lists have been successful in facilitating access to treatment and promoting affordable prices, particularly in low-resourced countries, by prioritizing the most important medicines all countries need to make available to their populations.
2018 paper
5 Raph Leonardus Hamers Oxford University Budi Wiweko, MD, OG (REI), PhD Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia Raph L Hamers, H Rogier van Doorn
Ann Versporten and colleagues (June, 2018)1 report the findings from the 2015 Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS)—a simple approach to assess antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in patients in hospitals across regions and countries worldwide. However, their grouping of the data by UN regions and subregions is problematic, because some countries were seriously under-represented, especially some low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). This under-representation potentially masked important shortcomings and differences between countries within (sub)regions. Estimates for the regions dominated by single countries (ie, western Europe by Belgium, northern Europe by UK, and east and south Asia by Japan) or represented by very few data (eastern Europa, Africa, and Oceania) should instead have been reported at the country or even hospital level. Although the authors acknowledged the misrepresentation in western and northern Europe as a study limitation, they did not comment on the biased samples for some of the other regions, especially those including LMIC. The final conclusions are thus biased for LMICs, where the concerns about rising antibiotic resistance, driven by antibiotic consumption, are most substantial.2, 3 Southeast Asia comprises a large geographical area with more than half the world's population and substantial variations in economic development. Prescribing practices in LMICs are reportedly poor, and robust antibiotic stewardship programmes are often non-existent. For example, a study4 of a random sample of hospitals in Vietnam showed that 55% of indications for empirical antibiotic therapy were inappropriate. However, in the Global-PPS, the reported quality indicators for antibiotic prescriptions denoted that those in the region of east and south Asia were in the same range as those reported for western and northern Europe, probably due to the over-representation of high-income countries such as Japan, Singapore, and South Korea. This over-representation is a crucial limitation, because these favourable findings might provide false reassurance to national policy makers, risking complacency. An additional analysis in which high-income countries are contrasted against LMICs would have been useful. Nonetheless, the limited and patchy data from LMICs in the survey make it difficult to draw any firm conclusions about the quantity and quality of antimicrobial prescribing in these settings. Antibiotic consumption and resistance in LMICs are rising substantially because of rapid economic and population growth coupled with the high burden of infectious diseases.2 We call for the further implementation of global initiatives, such as Global-PPS, endorsed by international agencies and governments, to systematically collect granular and representative data to inform policies around optimising antibiotic prescribing and minimising antibiotic resistance.
2018 paper
6 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Baird JK, Battle KE, Howes RE.
The hypnozoite reservoir of Plasmodium vivax represents both the greatest obstacle and opportunity for ultimately eradicating this species. It is silent and cannot be diagnosed until it awakens and provokes a clinical attack with attendant morbidity, risk of mortality, and opportunities for onward transmission. The only licensed drug that kills hypnozoites is primaquine, which attacks the hypnozoite reservoir but imposes serious obstacles in doing so—at hypnozoitocidal doses, it invariably causes a threatening acute haemolytic anaemia in patients having an inborn deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), affecting about 8% of people living in malaria endemic nations. That problem excludes a large number of people from safe and effective treatment of the latent stage of vivax malaria: the G6PD deficient, pregnant or lactating women, and young infants. These groups were estimated to comprise 14.3% of populations resident in the 95 countries with endemic vivax malaria. Another important obstacle regarding primaquine in the business of killing hypnozoites is its apparent metabolism to an active metabolite exclusively via cytochrome P-450 isozyme 2D6 (CYP2D6). Natural polymorphisms of this allele create genotypes expressing impaired enzymes that occur in over 20% of people living in Southeast Asia, where more than half of P. vivax infections occur globally. Taken together, the estimated frequencies of these primaquine ineligibles due to G6PD toxicity or impaired CYP2D6 activity composed over 35% of the populations at risk of vivax malaria. Much more detailed work is needed to refine these estimates, derive probabilities of error for them, and improve their ethnographic granularity in order to inform control and elimination strategy and tactics.
2018 Publication
7 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Lover AA, Baird JK, Gosling R, Price R.
Important strides have been made within the past decade toward malaria elimination in many regions, and with this progress, the feasibility of eradication is once again under discussion. If the ambitious goal of eradication is to be achieved by 2040, all species of Plasmodium infecting humans will need to be targeted with evidence-based and concerted interventions. In this perspective, the potential barriers to achieving global malaria elimination are discussed with respect to the related diversities in host, parasite, and vector populations. We argue that control strategies need to be reorientated from a sequential attack on each species, dominated by Plasmodium falciparum to one that targets all species in parallel. A set of research themes is proposed to mitigate the potential setbacks on the pathway to a malaria-free world.
2018 Publication
8 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Sutanto I, Kosasih A, Elyazar I, Simanjuntak DR, Larasati TA, Dahlan S, Wahid I, Mueller I, Koepfli C, Kusriastuti R, Surya A, Laihad FJ, Hawley WA, Collins FH, Baird JK, Lobo NF.
Background Mass screening and treatment (MST) aims to reduce malaria risk in communities by identifying and treating infected persons without regard to illness. Methods A cluster-randomized trial evaluated malaria incidence with and without MST. Clusters were randomized to 3, 2, or no MST interventions: MST3, 6 clusters (156 households/670 individuals); MST2, 5 clusters (89 households/423 individuals); and MST0, 5 clusters (174 households/777 individuals). All clusters completed the study with 14 residents withdrawing. In a cohort of 324 schoolchildren (MST3, n = 124; MST2, n = 57; MST0, n = 143) negative by microscopy at enrollment, we evaluated the incidence density of malaria during 3 months of MST and 3 months following. The MST intervention involved community-wide expert malaria microscopic screening and standard therapy with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and primaquine for glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase–normal subjects. All blood examinations included polymerase chain reaction assays, which did not guide on-site treatment. Results The risk ratios for incidence density of microscopically patent malaria in MST3 or MST2 relative to that in MST0 clusters were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], .53–1.91) and 1.22 (95% CI, .42–3.55), respectively. Similar results were obtained with molecular analysis and species-specific (P. falciparum and P. vivax) infections. Microscopically subpatent, untreated infections accounted for 72% of those infected. Conclusions Two or 3 rounds of MST within 3 months did not impact the force of anopheline mosquito-borne infection in these communities. The high rate of untreated microscopically subpatent infections likely explains the observed poor impact.
2018 Publication
9 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Robert J Commons, MBBS FRACP; Julie A Simpson; Kamala Thriemer; Georgina S Humphreys; Tesfay Abreha; Sisay G Alemu; Arletta Añez; Nicholas M Anstey; Ghulam R Awab; J. Kevin Baird; et al.
Summary Background Chloroquine remains the mainstay of treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria despite increasing reports of treatment failure. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of chloroquine dose and the addition of primaquine on the risk of recurrent vivax malaria across different settings. Methods A systematic review done in MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews identified P vivax clinical trials published between Jan 1, 2000, and March 22, 2017. Principal investigators were invited to share individual patient data, which were pooled using standardised methods. Cox regression analyses with random effects for study site were used to investigate the roles of chloroquine dose and primaquine use on rate of recurrence between day 7 and day 42 (primary outcome). The review protocol is registered in PROSPERO, number CRD42016053310. Findings Of 134 identified chloroquine studies, 37 studies (from 17 countries) and 5240 patients were included. 2990 patients were treated with chloroquine alone, of whom 1041 (34·8%) received a dose below the target 25 mg/kg. The risk of recurrence was 32·4% (95% CI 29·8–35·1) by day 42. After controlling for confounders, a 5 mg/kg higher chloroquine dose reduced the rate of recurrence overall (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 0·82, 95% CI 0·69–0·97; p=0·021) and in children younger than 5 years (0·59, 0·41–0·86; p=0·0058). Adding primaquine reduced the risk of recurrence to 4·9% (95% CI 3·1–7·7) by day 42, which is lower than with chloroquine alone (AHR 0·10, 0·05–0·17; p<0·0001). Interpretation Chloroquine is commonly under-dosed in the treatment of vivax malaria. Increasing the recommended dose to 30 mg/kg in children younger than 5 years could reduce substantially the risk of early recurrence when primaquine is not given. Radical cure with primaquine was highly effective in preventing early recurrence and may also improve blood schizontocidal efficacy against chloroquine-resistant P vivax.
2018 Publication
10 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Joseph Donovan, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Le Tien Dung, Darma Imran, Erlina Burhan, Lam Hong Bao Ngoc, Nguyen Duc Bang, Do Chau Giang, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Jeremy Day, Le Thi Phuong Thao, Nguyen TT Thuong, Nguyen Nang Vien, Ronald B. Geskus, Marcel Wolbers, Raph L Hamers, Reinout van Crevel, Mugi Nursaya, Kartika Maharani, Tran Tinh Hien, Kevin Baird, et al.
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Co-infection with HIV increases the risk of developing TBM, complicates treatment, and substantially worsens outcome. Whether corticosteroids confer a survival benefit in HIV-infected patients with TBM remains uncertain. Hepatitis is the most common drug-induced serious adverse event associated with anti-tuberculosis treatment, occurring in 20% of HIV-infected patients. The suggested concentration thresholds for stopping anti-tuberculosis drugs are not evidence-based. This study aims to determine whether dexamethasone is a safe and effective addition to the first 6-8 weeks of anti-tuberculosis treatment of TBM in patients with HIV, and investigate alternative management strategies in a subset of patients who develop drug induced liver injury (DILI) that will enable the safe continuation of rifampicin and isoniazid therapy. Methods: We will perform a parallel group, randomised (1:1), double blind, placebo-controlled multi-centre Phase III trial, comparing the effect of dexamethasone versus placebo on overall survival in HIV-infected patients with TBM, in addition to standard anti-tuberculosis and antiretroviral treatment. The trial will be set in two hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and two hospitals in Jakarta, Indonesia. The trial will enrol 520 HIV-infected adults. An ancillary study will perform a randomised comparison of three DILI management strategies with the aim of demonstrating which strategy results in the least interruption in rifampicin and isoniazid treatment. An identical ancillary study will also be performed in the linked randomised controlled trial of dexamethasone in HIV-uninfected adults with TBM stratified by LTA4H genotype (LAST ACT). Discussion: Whether corticosteroids confer a survival benefit in HIV-infected patients remains uncertain, and the current evidence base for using corticosteroids in this context is limited. Interruptions in anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy is a risk factor for death from TBM. Alternative management strategies in DILI may allow the safe continuation of rifampicin and isoniazid therapy.
2018 Publication
11 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Asih PBS, Syafruddin D, Baird JK.
The human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax imposes unique challenges to its control and elimination. Primary among those is the hypnozoite reservoir of infection in endemic communities. It is the dominant source of incident malaria and exceedingly difficult to attack due to both inability to diagnose latent carriers and the potentially life-threatening toxicity of primaquine in patients with an inborn deficiency of G6PD, the only therapeutic option against hypnozoites. Large segments of endemic populations are not eligible for primaquine, and alternative strategies for managing the threat of relapse in any group have not been optimized or validated. Association of risk of primaquine failure against latent P. vivax with impaired alleles of P450 2D6 exacerbates the substantial pool of primaquine ineligibles. Resistance to chloroquine against acute P. vivax malaria commonly occurs; alternative therapies like ACTs are effective but seldom evaluated as a partner drug to primaquine in the essential radical cure. Many of the Anopheles mosquito vector of P. vivax in South and Southeast Asia, where >90% of infections occur, thrive in a diversity of habitats and exhibit wide ranges of feeding and breeding behavior. This chapter explores many of these challenges and possible approaches in controlling and eliminating endemic vivax malaria.
2018 Publication
12 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman JK Baird, Melva Louisa, Rintis Noviyanti, Lenny Ekawati, Iqbal Elyazar, Decy Subekti, Krisin Chand, Anggi Gayatri, Instiaty, Saraswati Soebianto, Chelzie Crenna-Darusallam, Dwi Djoko, Bambang Pratomo Sulistyanto, Dubel Mariyenes, David Wesche, Erni Nelwan, Inge Sutanto, Herawati Sudoyo, Rianto Setiabudy.
Importance Latent hepatic Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites provoke repeated clinical attacks called relapses. Only primaquine phosphate kills hypnozoites, and its therapeutic activity may depend on naturally polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 isotype (CYP2D6) activity. Objective To examine the association of impaired CYP2D6 genotypes and CYP2D6 metabolic phenotypes with therapeutic failure of directly observed high-dose primaquine treatment for P vivax malaria relapse. Design, Setting, and Participants Nested case-control study of patients who, in July 2014, completed a randomized clinical trial of directly observed primaquine treatment for radical cure of acute P vivax malaria in an area of Indonesia where reinfection during 1 year of posttreatment follow-up was improbable. A total of 177 of 180 patients with P vivax malaria completed the clinical trial of primaquine treatment to prevent relapse; 151 were eligible for recruitment as controls. After screening, 59 potential control individuals (no relapse) and 26 potential case patients (relapse) were considered, and 36 controls and 21 cases were enrolled. Exposures Cases and controls were exposed to P vivax malaria and primaquine therapy but had variable exposure to the enzymatic activity of CYP2D6, classified as impaired by a genotype-determined qualitative phenotype (poor or intermediate), genotype-determined activity score less than 1.5, or a log of the 24-hour pooled urine dextromethorphan-dextrorphan metabolic ratio greater than ?1.0. Main Outcomes and Measures Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) of relapse with impaired CYP2D6 metabolism determined by genotype or measured by urinary dextromethorphan-dextrorphan metabolic ratio. Results Among the 21 cases (mean [SD] age, 30.5 [6.3] years; all male) and 36 controls (mean [SD] age, 29.0 [3.6] years; all male), 6 CYP2D6 alleles (*1, *2, *4, *5, *10, and *41) occurred as 12 distinct genotypes, with model activity scores ranging from 0.0 to 2.0. Among 32 patients with genotypic activity scores of 1.0 or less, 18 had experienced relapse, whereas among the 25 with scores higher than 1.0, 3 had experienced relapse (OR, 9.4; 95% CI, 2.1-57.0; P?=?.001). When the log of the metabolic ratio of dextromethorphan-dextrorphan was ?1.0 or less, only 1 of 18 patients experienced relapse, whereas above that threshold (consistent with low metabolic activity), 20 of 39 patients experienced relapse (OR, 18; 95% CI, 2.2-148.0; P?=?.007). Conclusions and Relevance Genotype-determined and directly measured impaired levels of CYP2D6 activity were associated with elevated risk of therapeutic failure. These findings suggest a natural variability in CYP2D6-dependent metabolism of primaquine as a key determinant of therapeutic efficacy against latent P vivax malaria.
2018 Publication
13 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Christian P. Nixon, Ari W. Satyagraha, Grayson L, Alida Harahap, Lydia V. Panggalo, Lenny L. Ekawati, Inge Sutanto, Din Syafruddin, JK Baird.
Introduction South-East Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) is a common inherited red blood cell polymorphism in South-East Asian and Melanesian populations, coinciding with areas of malaria endemicity. Validation of light microscopy as a diagnostic alternative to molecular genotyping may allow for its cost?effective use either prospectively or retrospectively by analysis of archived blood smears. Methods We assessed light microscopic diagnosis of SAO compared to standard PCR genotyping. Three trained microscopists each assessed the same 971 Giemsa?stained thin blood films for which SAO genotypic confirmation was available by PCR. Generalized mixed modeling was used to estimate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of light microscopy vs “gold standard” PCR. Results Among red cell morphologic parameters evaluated, knizocytes, rather than ovalocytic morphology, proved the strongest predictor of SAO status (odds ratio [OR] = 19.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 14.6?25.3; P ? 0.0001). The diagnostic performance of a knizocyte?centric microscopic approach was microscopist dependent: two microscopists applied this approach with a sensitivity of 0.89 and a specificity of 0.93. Inter?rater reliability among the microscopists (? = 0.20) as well as between gold standard and microscopist (? = 0.36) underperformed due to misclassification of stomatocytes as knizocytes by one microscopist, but improved substantially when excluding the error?prone reader (? = 0.65 and 0.74, respectively). Conclusion Light microscopic diagnosis of SAO by knizocyte visual cue performed comparable to time?consuming and costlier molecular methods, but requires specific training that includes successful differentiation of knizocytes from stomatocytes.
2018 Publication
14 Vanitha Muthukannan Anna University Prof.Dr.Eng. I Made Joni Universitas Padjadjaran I. Made Joni, M. Vanitha, P. Camellia, N. Balasubramanianc
Processing of graphite from its ore has been studied for more than a decade due to the elevated demand for graphite which has a wide range of applications but restricted to the short availability of resources. In the present study, microwave irradiation was used for the graphitization of carbon using different metal (Ni, Co, Fe, Cr) salts as catalysts. Microwave irradiation excels from the classical thermal treatment since in the former case the reaction time and the temperature used is low. The graphitization using nickel sulfate as a catalyst was most effective when compared to the other catalysts and the % degree of graphitization was about 98% for 5 min of reaction time. The mechanism underlying the formation of graphite by microwave irradiation is also discussed in brief. Hence this study provides a new approach for processing graphite by a simple, fast and effective microwave technique. In addition, the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) from the graphitized carbon was also attempted and compared with GO prepared from commercial graphite.
2018 Journal
15 Vanitha Muthukannan Anna University Prof.Dr.Eng. I Made Joni Universitas Padjadjaran M. Vanitha, I Made Joni, P. Camellia, N. Balasubramanian
Ce doped ZnO/rGO composite materials were prepared by a one-pot hydrothermal process without any surfactant. The size, crystallography and morphology of the composite were investigated in detail by X- ray diffraction (XRD) studies, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopic (SEM), transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies, UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The XRD pattern substantiates the formation of Ce doped ZnO/rGO composite revealing the wurtzite structure of ZnO. The SEM micrograph illustrates flower-like morphology for ZnO/rGO composite which coalesced further after cerium incorporation. Additionally, TEM image illustrated that ZnO hexagons were disoriented from its flower structure in Ce/ZnO/rGO composite. The XPS spectra further reaffirm the formation of cerium doped ZnO/rGO composite. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra confirms that emission occurs in the UV and visible region and several active sub-levels were observed in visible region on deconvolution, due to the incorporation of cerium. Antibacterial activity towards B. subtills and V. harveyi affirmed that the incorporation of Ce in ZnO/rGO composite leads to an improved antibacterial activity. Keywords: Cerium; Graphene; Oxygen vacancies; Composite; Photoluminescence spectra
2018 Journal
16 Vanitha Muthukannan Anna University Prof.Dr.Eng. I Made Joni Universitas Padjadjaran C Panatarani, M Vanitha, L Nulhakim, Z I Hauna and I M Joni
Design and fabrication of Al-air battery were done in this present work with economically viable raw materials. Optimization of anode material, catalyst concentration, current density and electrolyte concentration were carried out. Al 5083 as an anode material results in longer discharge time than Al 7075 and Al 6061 anode used in this study. Catalyst loading of 5% TiCl3, current density of 5 mA cm-2 and 10% of NaCl electrolyte were optimized. A single battery cell is fabricated using Al 5083 as an anode, air cathode which consists of graphite, paint as a binder with 5% TiCl as a catalyst and 10% NaCl as the electrolyte. The single cell exhibits voltage of about 0.8 V with 20 mA h 3 -1 current capacity. The lifecycle of the fabricated battery is tested for four consecutive cycles which demonstrates almost similar shape in the charging and discharging curves representing better stability of the fabricated battery.
2018 Original Research article
17 Vanitha Muthukannan Anna University Prof.Dr.Eng. I Made Joni Universitas Padjadjaran I M Joni, L Nulhakim, M Vanitha and C Panatarani
The crystalline silica (SiO2) particle is successfully prepared using simple solution method from sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) precursor. The FTIR spectrum of the sample confirms the presence of SiO2. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the sample is cristobalite type of SiO2 which is comparable with ICSD ref. number of 01-076-0941. The crystallite size is about 28 nm as calculated by Scherrer method and the average particle diameter was about 697 nm as confirmed by Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) measurement. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image reveals that the sample reveal micro-flake with irregular rod-shaped morphology. The purity of sample is examined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) which shows about 93.1 mass % of pure SiO2 whereas, the purity of the raw precursor Na2SiO3 before synthesis is about 60.5 Mass %. The synthesized SiO2 particles can be used for several applications, where SiO2 is used in its crystalline phase.
2018 Original Research article
18 Vanitha Muthukannan Anna University Prof.Dr.Eng. I Made Joni Universitas Padjadjaran M. Vanitha, N Balasubramanian, I Made Joni and P. Camellia,
The detection of contaminants in wastewater is of massive importance in today’s situation as they pose a serious threat to the environment as well as humans. One such vital contaminants is mercury and its compound, the reported mercury detectors grieve from low sensitivity, high cost and slow response. In the present work graphene based electrode material is developed for sensing mercury contaminants in wastewater using electrochemical technique. The synthesized material graphene oxide (GO) modified with L-Cysteine in presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agent was characterized using SEM, TEM and Raman Spectroscopic analysis. It is ascertained from the morphological characterization that the nanocomposite exhibits a spherical morphology. The L-cysteine modified graphene oxide electrode is electrochemically characterized using redox couple [Fe(CN)63-/4-] and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analysis. Electrochemical sensing of Hg (II) ions in solution was done using Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The incorporation of graphene significantly increases the sensitivity and selectivity towards mercury sensing.
2018 Conference
19 Vanitha Muthukannan Anna University Prof.Dr.Eng. I Made Joni Universitas Padjadjaran I Made Joni, Vanitha Muthukannan, Wawan Hermawan, and Camellia Panatarani
Nanotechnology today is regarded as a revolutionary technology that can help to address the key needs related to energy, environment, health and agriculture in developing countries. This paper is a short review on the development and challenges of nanotechnology in Indonesia. Nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there is emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. The main applications of nanotechnology in the different sectors which is vital and its economic impact in Indonesia is also discussed. The achievment and development of nanotechnology including synthesis and dispersion of nanoparticles (NPs) and its applications in various fields is briefly addressed in Nanotehcnology and Graphene Research Center, Universitas Padjadjaran (Unpad). Despite significant progress in developmental goals, many challenges in the development of nanotechnology proccesing need to be resolved such as support infrastructure and evolution of new form of collaborative arrangements between various sectors and policies which is emerged as an important factor enabling development.
2018 conference paper
20 Vanitha Muthukannan Anna University Prof.Dr.Eng. I Made Joni Universitas Padjadjaran Ujang Subhan, Vanitha Muthukannan, Sundoro Yoga Azhary, Muhammad Fakhri Mulhadi, Emma Rochima, Camellia Panatarani, and I Made Joni
The efficiency and productivity of aquaculture strongly depends on the development of advanced technology for water quality management system. The most important factor for the success of intensive aquaculture system is controlling the water quality of fish rearing media. This paper reports the design of fine bubbles (FBs) generator and performance evaluation of the system to improve water quality in thai catfish media (10?g/ind) with density (16.66 ind./L). The FBs generator was designed to control the size distribution of bubble by controlling its air flow rate entry to the mixing chamber of the generator. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the produced debit, dissolved oxygen rate and ammonia content in the catfish medium. The size distribution was observed by using a high speed camera image followed by processing using ImageJ. freeware application. The results show that air flow rate 0.05?L/min and 0.1?L/min received average bubble size of 29?µm and 31?µm respectively. The generator produced bubbles with capacity of 6?L/min and dissolved oxygen rate 0.2?ppm/min/L. The obtained DO growth was 0.455?ppm/second/L while the average decay rate was 0.20?ppm/second/L. (0.011/0.005 fold). In contrast, the recieved DO growth rate is faster compared to the DO consumption rate of the Thai catfish. This results indicated that the potential application of FBs enhanced the density of thai catfish seed rearing. In addition, ammonia can be reduced at 0.0358?ppm/hour/L and it is also observed that the inhibition of bacterial growth of air FBs is postive to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria compared to the negative control. It is concluded that as-developed FBs system can be potentially applied for intensive thai catfish culture and expected to improve the feeding efficiency rate.
2018 conference paper
21 Wendy Marie Erb Rutgers University Siti Maimunah, MSc Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya W.M. Erb, E.J. Barrow, A.N. Hofner, S.S. Utami-Atmoko, E.R. Vogel
Indonesia’s peatlands experience frequent and intense wildfires, producing hazardous smoke with consequences for human health, yet there is a lack of research into adverse effects on wildlife. We evaluated the effects of smoke on the activity and energy balance of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in a peat swamp forest at the Tuanan Research Station, Central Kalimantan. We collected behavioural data and urine samples from four adult flanged males before, during, and after wildfires between March 2015 and January 2016. During fires, particulate matter (PM10) concentrations were hazardous. Orangutans increased rest time during and after the smoke period, and decreased travel time and distance and increased fat catabolism post-smoke. The increase in post-smoke ketones was not related to changes in caloric intake and was likely due to an increase in energy expenditure, possibly related to immune response. Results show that wildfire smoke negatively affects orangutan condition, and sustained research is needed to assess the magnitude of the threat to the long-term viability of this Critically Endangered species.
2018 Research article
22 Matthew Wayne Tocheri Lakehead University Drs I Made Geria, M.Si. Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional Thomas Sutikna, Matthew W. Tocheri, J. Tyler Faith, Jatmiko, Rokus Due Awe, Hanneke J.M. Meijer, E. Wahyu Saptomo, Richard G. Roberts
Liang Bua, the type site of Homo floresiensis, is a limestone cave on the Indonesian island of Flores with sedimentary deposits currently known to range in age from about 190 thousand years (ka) ago to the present. Recent revision of the stratigraphy and chronology of this depositional sequence suggests that skeletal remains of H. floresiensis are between ~100 and 60 ka old, while cultural evidence of this taxon occurs until ~50 ka ago. Here we examine the compositions of the faunal communities and stone artifacts, by broad taxonomic groups and raw materials, throughout the ~190 ka time interval preserved in the sequence. Major shifts are observed in both the faunal and stone artifact assemblages that reflect marked changes in paleoecology and hominin behavior, respectively. Our results suggest that H. floresiensis and Stegodon florensis insularis, along with giant marabou stork (Leptoptilos robustus) and vulture (Trigonoceps sp.), were likely extinct by ~50 ka ago. Moreover, an abrupt and statistically significant shift in raw material preference due to an increased use of chert occurs ~46 thousand calibrated radiocarbon (14C) years before present (ka cal. BP), a pattern that continues through the subsequent stratigraphic sequence. If an increased preference for chert does, in fact, characterize Homo sapiens assemblages at Liang Bua, as previous studies have suggested (e.g., Moore et al., 2009), then the shift observed here suggests that modern humans arrived on Flores by ~46 ka cal. BP, which would be the earliest cultural evidence of modern humans in Indonesia.
2018 Journal Article
23 Thomas Kopp Göttingen University Prof. Dr. Zulkifli Alamsyah Universitas Jambi Thomas Kopp, Bernhard Brümmer, Zulkifli Alamsyah, Raja Sharah Fatricia
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2017 Journal
24 Mareike Huhn Ruhr-University Bochum Dr. Hawis Madduppa Institut Pertanian Bogor Lukehurst, S.S., Joana Dias, P., Huhn, M., Madduppa, H.H., Lee, S.S.C., Teo, S., Gardner, M.G., McDonald, J.I.
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2017 Journal
25 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Baird JK.
Malaria in Asia is a pervasive and diverse problem with about 2 billion people at risk. 1 Although Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax account for most clinical attacks of malaria in Asia, all four human plasmodia occur, as do zoonoses involving plasmodia of southeast Asian macaques 2 and several dozen species of anopheline mosquito carry malaria in a wide variety of ecological habitats. 3 Despite the broad scope and complexity of malaria in Asia, it represents a fairly small fraction of research endeavour and public funding in global malaria control efforts. 4 , 5 This partly derives from quantitative WHO morbidity and mortality estimates that put less than 10% of the global burden in this region. 6 But do the large denominators of risk conceal more substantial burdens?
2017 Publication
26 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman J. Kevin Baird.
Malaria poses an exceptionally complex problem for providers of travel medicine services. Perceived high risk of exposure during travel typically prompts prescribing protective antimalarial drugs. Suppressive chemoprophylactic agents have dominated strategy for that practice for over 70 years. This broad class of therapeutic agents kills parasites after they emerge from the liver and attempt development in red blood cells. The dominance of suppressive chemoprophylaxis in travel medicine stems largely from the view of Plasmodium falciparum as the utmost threat to the patient – these drugs are poorly suited to preventing Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale due to inactivity against the latent liver stages of these species not produced by P. falciparum. Those hypnozoites awaken to cause multiple clinical attacks called relapses in the months following infection. Causal prophylactic agents kill parasites as they attempt development in hepatic cells. The only drug proven effective for causal prophylaxis against P. vivax is primaquine. That drug is not widely recommended for primary prophylaxis for travelers despite preventing both primary attacks of all the plasmodia and relapses of P. vivax. The long-held perception of P. vivax as causing a benign malaria in part explains the dominance of suppressive chemoprophylaxis strategies poorly suited to its prevention. Recent evidence from both travelers and patients hospitalized in endemic areas reveals P. vivax as a pernicious clinical threat capable of progression to severe disease syndromes associated with fatal outcomes. Effective prevention of clinical attacks of vivax malaria following exposure during travel requires primary causal prophylaxis or post-travel presumptive anti-relapse therapy following suppressive prophylaxis.
2017 Publication
27 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Xavier C. Ding , Maria Paz Ade, J. Kevin Baird, Qin Cheng, Jane Cunningham, Mehul Dhorda, Chris Drakeley, Ingrid Felger, Dionicia Gamboa, Matthias Harbers, Socrates Herrera, Naomi Lucchi, Alfredo Mayor, Ivo Mueller, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Arsène Ratsimbason, Jack Richards, Marcel Tanner, Iveth J. González.
The global prevalence of malaria has decreased over the past fifteen years, but similar gains have not been realized against Plasmodium vivax because this species is less responsive to conventional malaria control interventions aimed principally at P. falciparum. Approximately half of all malaria cases outside of Africa are caused by P. vivax. This species places dormant forms in human liver that cause repeated clinical attacks without involving another mosquito bite. The diagnosis of acute patent P. vivax malaria relies primarily on light microscopy. Specific rapid diagnostic tests exist but typically perform relatively poorly compared to those for P. falciparum. Better diagnostic tests are needed for P. vivax. To guide their development, FIND, in collaboration with P. vivax experts, identified the specific diagnostic needs associated with this species and defined a series of three distinct target product profiles, each aimed at a particular diagnostic application: (i) point-of-care of acutely ill patients for clinical care purposes; (ii) point-of-care asymptomatic and otherwise sub-patent residents for public health purposes, e.g., mass screen and treat campaigns; and (iii) ultra-sensitive not point-of-care diagnosis for epidemiological research/surveillance purposes. This report presents and discusses the rationale for these P. vivax-specific diagnostic target product profiles. These contribute to the rational development of fit-for-purpose diagnostic tests suitable for the clinical management, control and elimination of P. vivax malaria.
2017 Publication
28 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Kamala Thriemer, Benedikt Ley, Albino Bobogare, Lek Dysoley, Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Ayodhia P. Pasaribu, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Elodie Jambert, Gonzalo J. Domingo, Robert Commons, Sarah Auburn, Jutta Marfurt, Angela Devine, Mohammad M. Aktaruzzaman, Nayeem Sohel, Rinzin Namgay, Tobgyel Drukpa, Surender Nath Sharma, Elvieda Sarawati, Iriani Samad, Minerva Theodora, Simone Nambanya, Sonesay Ounekham, Rose Nanti Binti Mudin, Garib Da Thakur, Leo Sora Makita, Raffy Deray, Sang?Eun Lee, onard Boaz, Manjula N. Danansuriya, Santha D. Mudiyanselage, Nipon Chinanonwait, Suravadee Kitchakarn, Johnny Nausien, Esau Naket, Thang Ngo Duc, Ha Do Manh, Young S. Hong, Qin Cheng, Jack S. Richards, Rita Kusriastuti, Ari Satyagraha, Rintis Noviyanti, Xavier C. Ding, Wasif Ali Khan, Ching Swe Phru, Zhu Guoding, Gao Qi, Akira Kaneko, Olivo Miotto, Wang Nguitragool, Wanlapa Roobsoong, Katherine Battle, Rosalind E. Howes, Arantxa Roca?Feltrer, Stephan Duparc, Ipsita Pal Bhowmick, Enny Kenangalem, Jo?Anne Bibit, Alyssa Barry, David Sintasath, Rabindra Abeyasinghe, Carol H. Sibley, James McCarthy, Lorenz von Seidlein, J. Kevin Baird and Ric N. Price.
The delivery of safe and effective radical cure for Plasmodium vivax is one of the greatest challenges for achieving malaria elimination from the Asia–Pacific by 2030. During the annual meeting of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vivax Working Group in October 2016, a round table discussion was held to discuss the programmatic issues hindering the widespread use of primaquine (PQ) radical cure. Participants included 73 representatives from 16 partner countries and 33 institutional partners and other research institutes. In this meeting report, the key discussion points are presented and grouped into five themes: (i) current barriers for glucose-6-phosphate deficiency (G6PD) testing prior to PQ radical cure, (ii) necessary properties of G6PD tests for wide scale deployment, (iii) the promotion of G6PD testing, (iv) improving adherence to PQ regimens and (v) the challenges for future tafenoquine (TQ) roll out. Robust point of care (PoC) G6PD tests are needed, which are suitable and cost-effective for clinical settings with limited infrastructure. An affordable and competitive test price is needed, accompanied by sustainable funding for the product with appropriate training of healthcare staff, and robust quality control and assurance processes. In the absence of quantitative PoC G6PD tests, G6PD status can be gauged with qualitative diagnostics, however none of the available tests is currently sensitive enough to guide TQ treatment. TQ introduction will require overcoming additional challenges including the management of severely and intermediately G6PD deficient individuals. Robust strategies are needed to ensure that effective treatment practices can be deployed widely, and these should ensure that the caveats are outweighed by the benefits of radical cure for both the patients and the community. Widespread access to quality controlled G6PD testing will be critical.
2017 Publication
29 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Baird JK.
“The scientific spirit is of more value than its products, and irrationally held truths may be more harmful than reasoned errors.” Thomas Henry Huxley Rational thought or actions accord with reason and logic, and, certainly in the realm of science, verifiable evidence underpins those attributes. This issue of Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases offers a meta-analysis of a series of clinical trials of primaquine chemoprophylaxis reported 15–24 years ago [1]. Re-examining this evidence today serves the important purpose of considering the primacy of suppressive chemoprophylaxis strategies in the context of profoundly evolved views on the character of infection by the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. The communities of science, medicine, and public health long regarded this species as intrinsically benign and relatively inconsequential. Strategies for chemoprophylaxis against malaria reflected this view – suppressive drugs dominated practice despite poor suitability for preventing attacks of vivax malaria following travel. Work over the past decade reveals P. vivax as often pernicious and threatening and prompts broad reconsideration of what have been ineffective strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, control, and chemoprophylaxis of this infection of many millions [2].
2017 Publication
30 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman J. Kevin Baird
Malaria remains a serious clinical and public health problem, the object of an ongoing technological and humanitarian struggle to abate the very substantial harm done. The manner by which humanity approached malaria control changed abruptly and profoundly after 1945 with the advent of the insecticide DDT. Malariologists in the first half of the twentieth century conceived precise modifications to natural or man-made environments aimed at making those less hospitable to specific anopheline mosquito vector species. This practical malariology achieved very significant reductions in burdens of morbidity and mortality, but the revolutionary insecticide eliminated the need for its specialized knowledge and diverse practices. By 1970 mosquito resistance to DDT and perceived environmental concerns precipitated the collapse of what had been a vigorous global campaign to eradicate malaria. Humanity did not then revitalize practical malariology but turned to another commodity as the foundation of control strategy, the war-spurred suite of synthetic antimalarial drugs developed in the 1940s and 1950s. When those drugs became lost to parasite resistance in the latter twentieth century, malaria resurged globally. Since 2005, tens of billions of dollars mobilized new commodities to control malaria: point-of-care diagnostics, effective artemisinin-based treatments, and longer-lasting insecticide treated bed nets. The know-how of practical malariology is not part of that ongoing commodities-based strategy. This article examines contemporary malaria control in the broad strokes of a strategy mitigating the consequences of infection contrasted to that of the abandoned practical malariology strategy of prevention. The inherent risks and limitations of over-reliance upon commodities in striving to control malaria may prompt consideration of a strategic posture inclusive of the proven methods of practical malariology.
2017 Publication
31 Adam Robert BRUMM Griffith University Priyatno Hadi Sulistyarto Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional (ARKENAS) Thomas Sutikna, Matthew W. Tocheri, Michael J. Morwood‡, E. Wahyu Saptomo, Jatmiko, Rokus Due Awe, Sri Wasisto, Kira E. Westaway, Maxime Aubert, Bo Li, Jian-xin Zhao, Michael Storey, Brent V. Alloway, Mike W. Morley, Hanneke J. M. Meijer, Gerrit D. van den Bergh, Rainer Grün, Anthony Dosseto, Adam Brumm, William L. Jungers & Richard G. Roberts
Homo floresiensis, a primitive hominin species discovered in Late Pleistocene sediments at Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia)1,2,3, has generated wide interest and scientific debate. A major reason this taxon is controversial is because the H. floresiensis-bearing deposits, which include associated stone artefacts2,3,4 and remains of other extinct endemic fauna5,6, were dated to between about 95 and 12 thousand calendar years (kyr) ago2,3,7. These ages suggested that H. floresiensis survived until long after modern humans reached Australia by ~50?kyr ago8,9,10. Here we report new stratigraphic and chronological evidence from Liang Bua that does not support the ages inferred previously for the H. floresiensis holotype (LB1), ~18 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (kyr cal. BP), or the time of last appearance of this species (about 17 or 13–11?kyr?cal. BP)1,2,3,7,11. Instead, the skeletal remains of H. floresiensis and the deposits containing them are dated to between about 100 and 60?kyr ago, whereas stone artefacts attributable to this species range from about 190 to 50 kyr in age. Whether H. floresiensis survived after 50 kyr ago—potentially encountering modern humans on Flores or other hominins dispersing through southeast Asia, such as Denisovans12,13—is an open question.
2016 Journal Nature
32 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Satyagraha AW, Sadhewa A, Elvira R, Feiandika D, Antonjaya U, Oyong D, Elyazar I, Subekti D, Domingo G, Harahap AR, Baird JK.
Background Patients infected by Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale suffer repeated clinical attacks without primaquine therapy against latent stages in liver. Primaquine causes seriously threatening acute hemolytic anemia in patients having inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Access to safe primaquine therapy hinges upon the ability to confirm G6PD normal status. CareStart G6PD, a qualitative G6PD rapid diagnostic test (G6PD RDT) intended for use at point-of-care in impoverished rural settings where most malaria patients live, was evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings This device and the standard qualitative fluorescent spot test (FST) were each compared against the quantitative spectrophotometric assay for G6PD activity as the diagnostic gold standard. The assessment occurred at meso-endemic Panenggo Ede in western Sumba Island in eastern Indonesia, where 610 residents provided venous blood. The G6PD RDT and FST qualitative assessments were performed in the field, whereas the quantitative assay was performed in a research laboratory at Jakarta. The median G6PD activity ?5 U/gHb was 9.7 U/gHb and was considered 100% of normal activity. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency by quantitative assessment (<5 U/gHb) was 7.2%. Applying 30% of normal G6PD activity as the cut-off for qualitative testing, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for G6PD RDT versus FST among males were as follows: 100%, 98.7%, 89%, and 100% versus 91.7%, 92%, 55%, and 99%; P = 0.49, 0.001, 0.004, and 0.24, respectively. These values among females were: 83%, 92.7%, 17%, and 99.7% versus 100%, 92%, 18%, and 100%; P = 1.0, 0.89, 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The overall performance of G6PD RDT, especially 100% negative predictive value, demonstrates suitable safety for G6PD screening prior to administering hemolytic drugs like primaquine and many others. Relatively poor diagnostic performance among females due to mosaic G6PD phenotype is an inherent limitation of any current practical screening methodology.
2016 Publication
33 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Boni F, White NJ, Baird JK.
Summary Points Combination therapy is an effective way to delay or prevent drug-resistance evolution in malaria, but we do not take full advantage of its potential. Deploying multiple first-line combination therapies allows us to challenge parasite populations with many different types of drugs, and thus delay and slow down drug-resistance evolution more than with a single combination therapy. We must take a preemptive, not reactive, policy approach to drug-resistance management in malaria.
2016 Publication
34 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Baird JK, Price RN.
Non-falciparum malaria refers to malaria infection due to Plasmodium species other than P. falciparum; these include P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi Worldwide, the greatest mortality due to malaria is associated with P. falciparum infection. Infections caused by P. knowlesi and P. vivax are also associated with significant risk of morbidity and mortality [2-4]; patients with uncomplicated malaria due to these species are vulnerable to deterioration even after initiation of treatment, and P. vivax infection may be complicated by recurrent infection and associated anemia [5]. Rarely, severe illness and death occur in the setting of infection with P. malariae or P. ovale The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of nonfalciparum malaria in nonpregnant adults and children will be reviewed here. Issues related to non-falciparum malaria in pregnant women are discussed separately, as are issues related to P. falciparum malaria. (See "Prevention and treatment of malaria in pregnant women", section on 'Non-falciparum malaria' and "Treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in nonpregnant adults and children" and "Treatment of severe malaria".)
2016 Publication
35 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Baird JK.
Malaria in the Asia-Pacific region has been targeted for elimination by the year 2030. This article asks the question, “by what means?” in the context of proven technical strategies and tools against key challenges imposed by the distinct character of the Asia-Pacific malaria problem. The misperception of malaria in the Asia-Pacific region as a less serious but otherwise essentially similar problem to African malaria lulls us into rote application of the same tools and strategies. Those now mitigating the harm done by malaria in Africa will not suffice to eliminate malaria in the Asia-Pacific region – these tasks and the problems are fundamentally distinct. This article describes the singular characteristics of Asia-Pacific malaria and the bearing of those upon the technical strategy of malaria elimination. Most of the tools needed for that endeavour do not yet exist and spirited calls for elimination within the next 14 years may discourage the patience and investments needed to conceive, optimise and validate them.
2016 Publication
36 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Surjadjaja C, Asik S, Baird JK.
Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients. Indonesia's hugely diverse human population carries many variants of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, most of them exhibiting severely impaired enzyme activity. Therefore, the patients most likely to benefit from primaquine therapy by preventing aggressive relapse, may also be most likely to suffer harm without G6PD deficiency screening. Indonesia faces the challenge of controlling and eventually eliminating malaria across > 13,500 islands stretching > 5,000 km and an enormous diversity of ecological, ethnographic, and socioeconomic settings, and extensive human migrations. This article describes the occurrence of P. vivax in Indonesia and the obstacles faced in eliminating its transmission.
2016 Publication
37 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Baird JK, Valecha N, Duparc S, White NJ, Price RN.
The diagnosis and treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria differs from that of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in fundamentally important ways. This article reviews the guiding principles, practices, and evidence underpinning the diagnosis and treatment of P. vivax malaria.
2016 Publication
38 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Howes RE, Battle KE, Mendis KM, Smith DL, Cibulskis RE, Baird JK, Hay SI.
Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria, putting 2.5 billion people at risk of infection. Its unique biological and epidemiological characteristics pose challenges to control strategies that have been principally targeted against Plasmodium falciparum. Unlike P. falciparum, P. vivax infections have typically low blood-stage parasitemia with gametocytes emerging before illness manifests, and dormant liver stages causing relapses. These traits affect both its geographic distribution and transmission patterns. Asymptomatic infections, high-risk groups, and resulting case burdens are described in this review. Despite relatively low prevalence measurements and parasitemia levels, along with high proportions of asymptomatic cases, this parasite is not benign. Plasmodium vivax can be associated with severe and even fatal illness. Spreading resistance to chloroquine against the acute attack, and the operational inadequacy of primaquine against the multiple attacks of relapse, exacerbates the risk of poor outcomes among the tens of millions suffering from infection each year. Without strategies accounting for these P. vivax-specific characteristics, progress toward elimination of endemic malaria transmission will be substantially impeded.
2016 Publication
39 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Bassat Q, Velarde M, Mueller I, Lin J, Leslie T, Wongsrichanalai C, Baird JK.
There is inadequate understanding of the biology, pathology, transmission, and control of Plasmodium vivax, the geographically most widespread cause of human malaria. During the last decades, study of this species was neglected, in part due to the erroneous belief that it is intrinsically benign. In addition, many technical challenges in culturing the parasite also hampered understanding its fundamental biology and molecular and cellular responses to chemotherapeutics. Research on vivax malaria needs to be substantially expanded over the next decade to accelerate its elimination and eradication. This article summarizes key knowledge gaps identified by researchers, national malaria control programs, and other stakeholders assembled by the World Health Organization to develop strategies for controlling and eliminating vivax malaria. The priorities presented in this article emerged in these technical discussions, and were adopted by expert consensus of the authors. All involved understood the priority placed upon pragmatism in this research agenda, that is, focus upon tools delivering better prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of P. vivax.
2016 Publication
40 John Kevin Baird Oxford University Professor Amin Soebandrio Lembaga Biologi Molekuler Eijkman Baird JK.
Discussions beginning in 2012 ultimately led to a landmark document from the World Health Organization (WHO) titled, Control and Elimination of Plasmodium vivax: A Technical Brief, published in July 2015. That body of work represents multiple expert consultations coordinated by the WHO Global Malaria Program, along with technical consensus gathering from national malaria control programs via the WHO regional offices around the globe. That document thus represents thoroughly vetted state-of-the-art recommendations for dealing specifically with P. vivax, the first assembly of such by the WHO. This supplement to the journal was commissioned by the WHO and compiles the very substantial body of evidence and analysis informing those recommendations. This introductory narrative to the supplement provides the historical and technological context of global strategy for combatting P. vivax and reducing the burdens of morbidity and mortality it imposes.
2016 Publication
41 Adam Robert BRUMM Griffith University Priyatno Hadi Sulistyarto Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional (ARKENAS) Aubert*, M., A. Brumm*, M. Ramli, T. Sutikna, E.W. Saptomo, B. Hakim, M.J. Morwood, G.D. van den Bergh, L. Kinsley & A. Dosseto
Archaeologists have long been puzzled by the appearance in Europe ?40–35 thousand years (kyr) ago of a rich corpus of sophisticated artworks, including parietal art (that is, paintings, drawings and engravings on immobile rock surfaces)1,2 and portable art (for example, carved figurines)3,4, and the absence or scarcity of equivalent, well-dated evidence elsewhere, especially along early human migration routes in South Asia and the Far East, including Wallacea and Australia5,6,7,8, where modern humans (Homo sapiens) were established by 50 kyr ago9,10. Here, using uranium-series dating of coralloid speleothems directly associated with 12 human hand stencils and two figurative animal depictions from seven cave sites in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, we show that rock art traditions on this Indonesian island are at least compatible in age with the oldest European art11. The earliest dated image from Maros, with a minimum age of 39.9 kyr, is now the oldest known hand stencil in the world. In addition, a painting of a babirusa (‘pig-deer’) made at least 35.4 kyr ago is among the earliest dated figurative depictions worldwide, if not the earliest one. Among the implications, it can now be demonstrated that humans were producing rock art by ?40 kyr ago at opposite ends of the Pleistocene Eurasian world.
2014 Journal Nature
42 Kosuke Mizuno (1). Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University; (2). Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) (1). Dr. Haris Gunawan (2) Prof. Dr. Almasdi Syahza SE. MP., (1) Badan Restrasi Gambut (BRG), (2) Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (LPPM) Universitas Riau Shuichi Kasai, Mizuno Kosuke, Fujita Motoko, ed.
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2012 Edited Book
43 Kosuke Mizuno (1). Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University; (2). Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) (1). Dr. Haris Gunawan (2) Prof. Dr. Almasdi Syahza SE. MP., (1) Badan Restrasi Gambut (BRG), (2) Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat (LPPM) Universitas Riau Mizuno, Kosuke, Haris Gunawan
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2010 Book Chapter